BAPS - Blue Air Purification System
Indoors or Outdoors?
For more than 35 years, The-Environmentalist is monitoring the damages caused by human hand and its effects on our environment. One topic that he has been observing for many years and which is now highly topical due to the Corona Virus is air pollution. The highest death rate is caused by air pollution. It is considered proven that more people die from air pollution inside buildings than outside.
At this point, we would like to refer to our ‚BAPS - Blue Air Purification System‘, which is available as a pdf file on this homepage under the heading ‚Downloads‘. In this document, we are furthermore stating our thoughts on the Coronavirus and its connection to air pollution.
In our Blue Building Foundation office and laboratory building in Sharjah, we have recorded CO2 values below 700 ppm and a dust particle PM2.5 load of below 10 μg/m³ in the last six years. During the past 6 years, there was only one absence due to illness.
For this reason, we have decided to immediately start research and development of the new ‘BAPS - Blue Air Purification System’ to protect people in public buildings, schools, hospitals and homes from dust and virus in the future.
Based on The-Environmentalist‘s observations and records, he would answer a relation regarding the risk of infection of viruses in buildings to nature as follows:
70% of infections indoors (with poor indoor air quality)
30% of infections outdoors (in case of poor outdoor air quality)
After we have published our study ‘BAPS - Blue Air Purification System‘ for the first time end of March 2020, step by step, different internationally renowned universities are confirming our initial statement that viruses can be transmitted over long distances via dust particles PM2.5.
At a wind speed of about 20 km/h, the transmission radius can therefore be up to 480 km per day. Depending on the lifetime of the corona virus and the wind speed, this radius can expand considerably. Although the press speaks of a considerable improvement in air quality, this ultimately has only a minor effect on airborne transmission. Current dust particle measurements, which can also be viewed in real time on the Internet, are still so high that they do not prevent transmission of the virus.
Already in 2010, Blue Building Team carried out a study, mentioning that spending one day in Milan is equal to smoking 15 cigarrets. But Milan is only one example. Monitoring the worldwide corona cases, one can tend to find that countries with high air pollution have a higher death rate than, for example, countries with clean air.
But still, the risk of infection via contaminated outdoor air is lower than via indoor air.
Indoor Air Quality - the Healthiest Air in the World
Indoor Air Quality inside villas with the Blue Building System
PM2.5 and PM10 (Particulate Matter)
Good indoor air quality is subject to many factors. These are determined by the following conditions, among others:
1. CO2 pollution
2. Dust particle pollution
3. Relative humidity
4. VOC values (volatile organic compounds)
Regrettably, there are many different scientific statements regarding CO2 pollution in the air. According to Max von Pettenkofer, the limit for poor indoor air quality is 1000 ppm. According to the SIA guideline 382/1, indoor air is defined as being of good quality if it is between 800 ppm and 1500 ppm. Values above 1500 ppm are problematic from health aspects (see attached tables PM2.5 to PM10 and CO2). Healthy indoor air increases the performance of a person in buildings by about 25%.
The numbers 10 and 2.5 refer to the µm diameter of the particulate matter.
Particulate matter is microscopic solid or liquid matter floating in the Earth's atmosphere.
They include: gases, smoke, smog, ash and dust, viruses and bacteria, allergens, mould spores and pollen.
Particulates are the deadliest form of air pollution due to their ability to penetrate deep into the lungs and blood streams unfiltered, causing permanent DNA mutations, heart attacks, and premature death. In 2013, the ESCAPE study, which involved 312,944 people in nine European countries, found that there is no research on particulate matter per m3, except that for every 10μg/m3 increase of PM10, the lung cancer rate increased by 22%.
Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation and sea spray. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and various industrial processes, also generate significant amounts of particulates.
According to this study from the Max Planck Institute (MPI), particulate matter causes more deaths than hitherto assumed. They talk about approximately 120.000 premature deaths caused by particulate pollution only in Germany. Experts assume a death rate of more than 30 million people worldwide due to air pollution.
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Depending on the physical activity, the lungs have an airflow of about 20,000 to 200,000 litre per day. During this time, it inhales a not inconsiderable amount of pollutants that are either aerosols or of inorganic nature (see PM2.5 Particulate pollution).
The body has several defence mechanisms to prevent the absorption of these foreign particles. Larger particles are trapped in the nose and excreted with the nasal secretion. The ultra-fine particles enter the deeper respiratory tract and are transported back and coughed up by the cilia cleaning system.
Smaller and ultra-fine dust particles between 0.5 µm and 2.5 µm penetrate deep into the bronchial tubes to the pulmonary alveoli, these can also enter the bloodstream. Via the bloodstream they reach the brain.
Many factors are responsible for the effect of these ultrafine dust particles, especially chemical compositions, or metal etc.
In this example, we concentrate on bacteria and viruses, which, according to our figure, have a size of 0.08 µm. These viruses penetrate the body with the dust particles and damage the inner surface of the respiratory tract, lungs and bloodstream. Scientific research has shown that these ultra-fine dusts have the same properties as quartz or asbestos dust. These ultrafine dusts lead to a functional impairment of respiration and gas exchange (ventilation and diffusion disturbance), they cause a progressive remodelling of the lung tissue and cause shortness of breath during physical exertion. Scientific tests prove that these dusts lead to cancer and other secondary diseases. The silicosis is one of the most common occupational diseases in Germany.
This process ultimately leads to an immune deficiency of the body.
Healthy Indoor Temperatures
Skin - The 5th Sense
Our known ‘traditional’ five senses and their respective organs are:
1. Hearing – Ears
2. Seeing – Eyes
3. Tasting – Tongue
4. Smelling – Nose
5. Touch - Skin
This document aims at explaining the temperature sensation of the human body, which is controlled by the 5th sense of touch/feel and linked our skin.
How we perceive temperatures is directly linked to health factors such as our blood pressure, metabolism and weight. It is furthermore based on physiological characteristics that determine our feeling for heat and cold.
The skin is our biggest and most important sensory organ, operated by cells to trigger a sensory perception. Embedded in the skin are, amongst others, heat- and cold receptors, touch corpuscles (touch sensors) and free nerve endings, which react to pressure, heat, cold and pain.
Therefore, the skin has multiple sensory perceptions: Palpation, touch, pressure, and pain perception from hot and cold.
As the biggest sensory organ, skin additionally assumes further crucial functions as it helps to keep a healthy body temperature and protects the body from harmful environmental influences, injuries and oxidation. It collects information from its environment and is playing a vital role for the human immune system. It has the ability of self-healing and detoxifies itself by means of sweating and sebaceous glands.
Every person is equipped with a very sensitive air condition that regulates the thermal condition of the body. Around 640.000 touch sensors are located in the skin. Research results show that around 250.000 cold receptors are located in the upper dermis and 30.000 heat receptors in the lower dermis. These receptors measure approximately 1 square millimetre big and are also located inside other organs and the brain. Inside the skin, the receptors communicate the smallest change in temperatures directly to the brain
A human body can stand a sudden temperature increase of 5°C before taking counter measures. If body temperatures rise above 42°C, proteins inside the blood start to coagulate. The skin produces sweat in order to cool the body down.
When it comes to a decrease in temperature, the human body can bear a change in 17°C. Further sudden decrease of temperature can lead to a vasoconstriction (narrowing of the arteries) and blood is being increasingly redirected to the centre of the body to protect the vital organs and brain.
Scientific research has shown that a naked human body feels most comfortable an air temperature of 29-30°C. With decreasing air temperature, the body loses more heat than it can produce. This also depends on the weight of the body.
A body whose temperature drops below 35°C enters a state of hypothermia, which is divided into 3 stages.
1. Body temperature 35 – 32 °C
Full consciousness, shivering, trembling
Cold and slightly blue skin
Abdominal and joint pain
2. Body temperature 32 - 28°C
Decease of consciousness, body stops shivering
Loss of speech
Breath and pulse is getting slower and weaker, pulse is irregular
3. Body temperature below 28°C
Extremely cold skin
Very weak pulse
In conclusion, the human body can tolerate cold better than heat.
The scientific study of Professor Angela Shuh, professor for medical climatology at the Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich, shows that that women have a more active metabolism than men, eating smaller amounts of food with less fats, prefer salads, vegetables and dairy products - food that has a ‘cooling’- effect.
The ideal room temperatures has become an important economic and ecological factor in the in the building industry. The ideal room temperature has been determined (depending on the room) to be 23 – 24 Degrees Celsius. At these temperatures, the body can release the excess heat at the same speed as it is produced.
Naturally, clothing and the level of physical activity influence the feeling of comfort at certain room temperatures.
VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds)
When solvents and chemicals in liquid or pasty products (household cleaning products, cosmetics, perfume, paints, etc.) evaporate, VOCs escape in large quantities into the ambient air. Added to this are materials from poor quality construction or interior design that contain plasticizers, solvents, stabilizers, etc. These are constantly released and lead to the well-known sick building syndrome. The use and evaporation of the above-mentioned agents also produces a not inconsiderable amount of fine dust. Initial studies have shown that this fine dust pollution is higher than the emissions from the automotive sector. To this end, we took a small measurement of VOCs in our office this morning, and the pictures are self-evident. We sprayed a disinfectant for about 2 seconds.
When staying indoors, if there is no controlled air ventilation or air purification system available, a continuous increase of increased pollutants can be observed. Necessary ventilation by opening windows in buildings is often not possible due to construction measures (closed windows in high-rise buildings or hotels) and in many countries due to climatic conditions.
There are no urgently required meaningful studies on ultra-fine dust pollution; existing studies contradict each other. These dusts are storage places for bacteria and germs; they penetrate via blood vessels to the brain (see attached drawing). When the epidermis of humans is damaged by scratches, insect bites or allergy-related skin diseases, these pollutants can also penetrate directly through the skin into the body and thus into the bloodstream.
Studies carried out by professional associations show that cancers diseases have a death rate of up to 20% at people who have been exposed to high levels of dust.
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Finally, the four elements can destroy and perish, but they can also become carriers of well-being. Our action is the administration of the four elements, in the true sense of our air, our water, our earth and the fire.
What is the biggest environmental threat today?
Without any doubt: The human being. Man has been entrusted with the four elements of our Mother Earth; all four elements will be and inexorably destroyed.
1. Air) Pure and clean air was changed into a visible air by pollution. Death from air pollution is currently the highest death rate in humanity.
2. Water) 2/3 of the Earth's surface is covered by water, but only one water drop contents all our knowledge. The reason that we do not realize that 1/3 of our drinking water is already contaminated.
3. Earth) Earth or contaminated Earth - that is the question.
Only for a few decades, the way of handling our waste has changed. Hazardous waste such as sewage, toxic chemicals, heavy metals or radioactive substances, represent a danger to humans and environment; their disposal is subject to specific statutory provisions.
Worldwide, about 130 million tons of waste are produced every day. Our groundwater is poisoned, our air polluted and 80,000 different hazardous substances and heavy metals get into the food cycle every second with a growing tendency.
4. Fire) Fire has a destructive and dangerous side; it destroys. The pollutants released can be transported far beyond 10,000 km through the air. Fire destroys natural oxygen generators. These fires usually contains "unknown materials", which makes it much more difficult to extinguish. Fire or heat is responsible for global warming, not CO2.
All four elements repeatedly cause enormous natural disasters with very high damages.
The increase of tremendous earthquakes, natural disasters, epidemics, famines and water shortages caused by global warming, air pollution, water pollution and soil contamination accompany us every day. They are the greatest growth of our time, contrary to positive environmental solutions. This statement is also confirmed by the Earth Overshoot Day. Whereas in 1987, the 23rd of October was considered the day on which natural resources were exhausted, in 2019 it was already be 29th of July. Qatar, Luxembourg and the United Arab Emirates occupy the first three positions. Their natural resources were already exhausted on 11, 16 February 2019 and 8 March 2019 respectively.
„The excessive consumption especially in the industrialized countries, are resulting in more and more waste. If this does not change, the amount of waste will increase by the year 2025 four-to fivefold "(Agenda 21, Chapter 20 and 21).
As already mentioned, during the last 6 years, we have made several measurements in our office; the dust particles PM2.5 are below 10.